December 2011
By Dr. Abdul Rahman
Senior Consultant of MU-Research and Consulting Indonesia


Climate change is regarded as global phenomena, in which influence this world globally and bring a big concern either in international or regional level. Scientists believe that the increasing volume of green house gas emissions is the main cause of the climate change[1]. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide warm the planet by trapping heat in the atmosphere. Higher global temperature is estimated to cause the rising of sea levels, to change in spatial rainfall patterns that will have serious implications for agricultural sector and to bring huge losses of ice in Antarctic. Carbon dioxide, one of the main greenhouse gases believed to be highly responsible for the global warming, has been increasing at a much faster rate since 2000. As reported in USA Today on October 25th 2007, director of the Carnegie Institution’s Department of Global Ecology in California, Christopher Field stated: “In the 1990s, CO2 emissions increased by about 1.3% per year. Since 2000, the growth rate has been 3.3% per year.”

Indonesia GHG Emission

Indonesia is one of those top 20 countries that emit large amount of CO2 (main greenhouse) where in 2008 recorded to have CO2 emission for around 397 megatons. Table 1, shows the list of top 20 countries in terms of CO2 emissions in 2008 due to human activities. China is the largest emitter, namely around 6,538 megatons, passed USA in the second place for around 6,094 megatons.

Indonesia is urgently required to reduce greenhouse gas, especially those from the activities in LULUCF (Land-use, Land-use Change and Forestry)[2]. In 2005, LULUCF contribute for more than 60% of the overall Indonesian total emission reaching around 2,120 million ton CO2. Emission sources of LULUCF are mainly from deforestation, peat land and forest degradation. Therefore as in IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), LULUCF sector is regarded to be very close relationship with the implementation of REDD+ (Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plus).


No Country CO2 emissions
1 China 6 538.37
2 United States 6 094.39
3 India 1 610.00
4 Russian Federation 1 579.82
5 Japan 1 303.78
6 Germany 841.15
7 Canada 590.20
8 United Kingdom 546.43
9 Korea, Republic of 503.32
10 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 495.99
11 Italy 475.30
12 Mexico 471.46
13 South Africa 433.53
14 Saudi Arabia 402.45
15 France 401.01
16 Indonesia 397.00
17 Australia 396.28
18 Brazil 368.32
19 Spain 366.00
20 Ukraine 340.15


REDD Indonesia

REDD+[3] is the development of REDD program, which includes other elements such as forest conservation, sustainable forest management, and carbon reservation enrichment. REDD itself is defined as an international mechanism which provides incentives for developing countries that succeed in reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation.

Indonesia government promised to reduce its emission for around 26-41% based on BAU (Business As Usual) scenario in 2020 in which its commitment was officially registered to the UNFCCC[4] on January 31st 2010. To achieve the target as stated above, the Government decided four sectors that are expected to contribute mainly in reducing emissions; 1) forestry, 2) peat land management, 3) energy and 4) waste management. In relation with these sectors, forestry and peat land sectors release significant emissions for more than half of Indonesian total emissions and for that reason REDD Indonesia is expected to play a significant role in those sectors.

Table 2 Indonesia GHG emissions in 2000 2005 from all sectors (in Gg)

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Energy 333,540 348,331 354,246 364,925 385,668 395,990
Industry 34,197 45,545 33,076 35,073 36,242 37,036
Agriculture 75,419 77,501 77,030 79,829 77,863 80,179
Wate 151,578 153,299 154,334 154,874 155,390 155,609
LUCF 649,254 560,546 1,287,495 345,489 617,280 N.E
Peat Fire 172,000 194,000 678,000 246,000 440,000 451,000
Total with LULUCF 1,415,988 1,379,222 2,584,181 1,266,191 1,711,443 1,119,814+LUCF
Total without LULUCF 594,734 624,676 618,686 634,701 654,162 688,14+LUCF

Source: Summary of Indonesia Second National Communication under UNFCCC, 2009


The history of REDD Indonesia was dated back to the statement of Indonesian President, Soesilo Bambang Yudhotono at a meeting of environment ministries from 40 countries in Bogor (West Java), on October 14th 2007 who mentioned the willingness of Indonesian government to reduce greenhouse gas emission. Since then Indonesia Ministry of Forestry have been putting attentions to REDD implementation schema which will take a major role in reducing greenhouse gas in LULUCF sector. REDD Indonesia, will be implemented in three phases, which consists of preparation phase, transition phase and full implementation phase.

Indonesian government (mainly through Ministry of Forestry) has issued some regulation to stipulate and support the implementation of REDD Indonesia as follows.

  1. Forestry Ministerial regulation number P.68/Menhut-II/2008 related to implementation of Demonstration Activities to reduce carbon emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation.
  2. Forestry Ministerial regulation number P.30/Menhut-II/2009 about Methodology of reducing emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation.
  3. Forestry Ministerial regulation number P.36/Menhut-II/2009 about license procedure for utilization business of carbon absorption and storage in Production and Protection forest.
  4. Presidential Decree Number 19 in 2010 about Preparation Task Force for the establishment of REDD+ Agency.
  5. Readiness Strategy 2009-2012 of REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Indonesia).
  6. Forestry Ministerial Decree number : SK 64/Menhut-II/2010 about the establishment of climate change and forest Working group who is in charge of providing inputs for policy and facilitate the implementation process of REDD+.

Not only policy and regulatory framework, financial support is provided as well from Indonesian Finance Ministry, in which special fund (DAK) for forestry programs is allocated to finance Climate Change related activities. In addition, other bilateral and multilateral donors are also assisting for strategy formulation as well as implementation of REDD Indonesia such as Japan, Australia, UK, Germany, South Korea, Norway, UN-REDD and the World Bank. So far Demonstration Activities are being implemented and there are 40 REDD trial activities all over Indonesia.

There will be three key functions or institutions to govern in national level for the implementation of REDD namely:

  1. REDD+ Agency that will function as a governing body for the overall REDD+ activities in Indonesia.
  2. REDD+ Financial Institution that will distribute REDD+ partnership fund.
  3. REDD+ MRV, an agency that will coordinate the activities of Monitoring, Reporting and Verification of REDD+ implementation.

Current Involvement of MURCI related to REDD+ Projects

  • Feasibility Study for REDD+ in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

Currently MURCI is conducting a feasibility study related to REDD+ in Central Kalimantan. The study covers various aspects such as REDD plus strategy discussed in UKP4, Ministry of Forestry, and BAPENASS; regulatory framework including permission system; and research related to REDD+ on Desa Paduran Mulya, Kecamatan Sebangau Kuala, Kabupaten Pulang Pisau, Central Kalimantan. (The project is sponsored by Japanese Government through Ministry of Environment.)

  • National Capacity Development for Greenhouse Gas Inventory in Indonesia

This project cover all sectors related to greenhouse gas inventory such as energy, industrial process, agriculture, LULUCF and waste, and implemented to related staff of various Indonesia government ministries or institutions. Topics discussed are quite wide, such as methodological aspects, source of data and information, data analysis, comparison with other national system of greenhouse gas inventory, and many other topics. MURCI has a role to facilitate the implementation of the project in Indonesia. (The project is sponsored by Japanese Government through JICA.)

[1] See the report Atmosphere Changes, by EPA of USA

[2] Land use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF): A greenhouse gas inventory sector that covers emissions and removals of greenhouse gases resulting from direct human-induced land use, land-use change and forestry activities. (Source: Climate Change Glossary of UNFCC)

[3] REDD+ stands for countries’ efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and foster conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. (Source: Forest Carbon Partnership Facility)

[4] UNFCCC: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (